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Study Series Lesson 7 3a2
Full Text of References Listed on Pages 6-11
From The Works of Flavius Josephus, Complete and Unabridged.
New Updated Edition, translated by William Whiston, A.M.
Copyright © 1987 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc., Peabody, Massachusetts.
All rights reserved. Used by permission.
Electronic text hypertexted and prepared by OakTree Software, Inc., Version 1.31. War 7.1 (7.1.1) Now, as soon as the army had no more people to slay or to plunder, because there remained none to be objects of their fury (for they would not have spared any, had there remained any other such work to be done) Caesar gave orders that they should now demolish the entire city and temple, but should leave as many of the towers standing as were of the greatest eminency; that is, Phasaelus, and Hippicus, and Mariamne, and so much of the wall as enclosed the city on the west side. War 7.2 (7.1.1) This wall was spared, in order to afford a camp for such as were to lie in garrison; as were the towers also spared, in order to demonstrate to posterity what kind of city it was, and how well fortified, which the Roman valor had subdued; War 7.3 (7.1.1) but for all the rest of the wall, it was so thoroughly laid even with the ground by those that dug it up to the foundation, that there was left nothing to make those that came thither believe it had ever been inhabited. War 7:376 (7.B.7) Where is this city that was believed to have God himself inhabiting therein? It is now demolished to the very foundations; and hath nothing but that monument of it preserved, I mean the camp of those that have destroyed it, which still dwells upon its ruins; War 7.115 (7.5.2) a great deal of which the Romans dug up; but the greatest part was discovered by those who were captives, and so they carried it away, I mean the gold and the silver, and the rest of that most precious furniture which the Jews had, and which the owners had treasured up underground, against the uncertain fortunes of war. War 7:29 (7.2.1) And now Simon, thinking he might be able to astonish and delude the Romans, put on a white frock, and buttoned upon him a purple cloak, and appeared out of the ground in the place the temple had formerly been. War 7:30 (7.2.1) At the first, indeed, those that saw him were greatly astonished, and stood still where they were; but afterward they came near to him, and asked him who he was. War 7:31 (7.2.1) Now Simon would not tell them, but bade them call for their captain; and when they ran to call him, Terentius Rufus, who was left to command the army there, came to Simon, and learned of him the whole truth, and kept him in bonds, and let Caesar know that he was taken. Whiston Note on War 7:31 (7.2.1) — This Terentius Rufus, as Reland in part observes here, is the same person whom the Talmudists call Turnus Rufus; of whom they relate, that “he ploughed up Zion as a field, and made Jerusalem become as heaps, and the mountain of the house as the high places of a forest;” which was long before foretold by the prophet Micah (3:12), and quoted from him in the prophecies of Jeremiah (26:18). Adam Clarke’s Comments on Matt. 24:2 – “Maimonides, a Jewish rabbin, in Tractate Taanith, c. 4, says, “That the very foundations of the temple were digged up, according to the Roman custom.” His words are these: “On that ninth day of the month Ab, fatal for vengeance, the wicked Turnus Rufus, of the children of Edom, ploughed up the temple, and the places round about it, that the saying might be fulfilled, Zion shall be ploughed as a field.” This Turnus, or rather Terentius Rufus, was left general of the army by Titus, with commission, as the Jews suppose, to destroy the city and the temple, as Josephus observes.” Barnes Notes on Matt. 24:2 – “Maimonides, a Jewish writer, has also recorded that “Terentius Rufus, an officer in the army of Titus, with a ploughshare tore up the foundations of the temple,” that the prophecy might be fulfilled, “Zion shall be ploughed as a field,” Micah 3:12.” 2. War 6:250 (6.4.5) but, as for that house, God had for certain long ago doomed it to the fire; and now that fatal day was come, according to the revolution of ages; it was the tenth day of the month Lous [Ab], upon which it was formerly burnt by the king of Babylon; War 6.288 (6.5.3} Thus were the miserable people persuaded by these deceivers, and such as belied God himself; while they did not attend, nor give credit, to the signs that were so evident and did so plainly foretell their future desolation; but, like men infatuated, without either eyes to see, or minds to consider, did not regard thedenunciations that Godmade to them. War 6.289 (6.5.3) Thus there was a star resembling a sword, which stood over the city, and a comet, that continued a whole year. War 6.290 (6.5.3) Thus also, before the Jews’ rebellion, and before those commotions which preceded the war, when the people were come in great crowds to the feast of unleavened bread, on the eighth day of the month Xanthicus [Nisan], and at the ninth hour of the night, so great a light shone round the altar and the holy house, that it appeared to be bright day time; which light lasted for half an hour. War 6.291 (6.5.3) This light seemed to be a good sign to the unskillful, but was so interpreted by the sacred scribes, as to portend those events that followed immediately upon it. War 6.292 (6.5.3) At the same festival also, a heifer, as she was led by the high priest to be sacrificed, brought forth a lamb in the midst of the temple. War 6.293 (6.5.3) Moreover, the eastern gate of the inner [court of the] temple, which was of brass, and vastly heavy, and had been with difficulty shut by twenty men, and rested upon a basis armed with iron, and had bolts fastened very deep into the firm floor, which was there made of one entire stone, was seen to be opened of its own accord about the sixth hour of the night. War 6.294 (6.5.3) Now, those that kept watch in the temple came hereupon running to the captain of the temple, and told him of it: who then came up thither, and not without great difficulty, was able to shut the gate again. War 6.295 (6.5.3) This also appeared to the vulgar to be a very happy prodigy, as if God did thereby open them the gate of happiness. But the men of learning understood it, that the security of their holy house was dissolved of its own accord, and that the gate was opened for the advantage of their enemies. War 6.296 (6.5.3) So these publicly declared, that this signal foreshowed the desolation that was coming upon them. Besides these, a few days after that feast, on the twenty-first day of the month Artemisius [Jyar], War 6.297 (6.5.3) a certain prodigious and incredible phenomenon appeared; I suppose the account of it would seem to be a fable, were it not related by those that saw it, War 6.298 (6.5.3) and were not the events that followed it of so considerable a nature as to deserve such signals; for, before sunsetting, chariots and troops of soldiers in their armor were seen War 6.299 (6.5.3) running about among the clouds, and surrounding of cities. Moreover at that feast which we call Pentecost, as the priests were going by night into the inner [court of the] temple, as their custom was, to perform their sacred ministrations, they said that, in the first place, they felt a quaking, and heard a great noise, War 6.300 (6.5.3) and after that they heard a sound as of a great multitude, saying, “Let us remove hence.” Tacitus, Histories, Bk 5, Sec. 13 Prodigies had occurred, which this nation, prone to superstition, but hating all religious rites, did not deem it lawful to expiate by offering and sacrifice. There had been seen hosts joining battle in the skies, the fiery gleam of arms, the temple illuminated by a sudden radiance from the clouds. The doors of the inner shrine were suddenly thrown open, and a voice of more than mortal tone was heard to cry that the Gods were departing. At the same instant there was a mighty stir as of departure. Sepher Yosippon (A Mediaeval History of Ancient Israel) Translated from the Hebrew by Steven B. Bowman. Excerpts from Chapter 87 “Burning of the Temple” ** For one year before Vespasian came, a single great star shining like unsheathed swords was seen over the Temple. And in those days when the sign was seen it was the holiday of Passover and during that entire night the Temple was lit up and illuminated like the light of day, and thus it was all seven days of the Passover. All the sages of Jerusalem knew that it was a malevolent sign, but the rest of the ignorant people said that it was a benevolent sign. … Now it happened after this that there was seen from above over the Holy of Holies for the whole night the outline of a man’s face, the like of whose beauty had never been seen in all the land, and his appearance was quite awesome. Moreover, in those days were seen chariots of fire and horsemen, a great force flying across the sky near to the ground coming against Jerusalem and all the land of Judah, all of them horses of fire and riders of fire. When the holiday of Shavu’oth came in those days, during the night the priests heard within the Temple something like the sound of men going and the sound of men marching in a multitude going into the Temple, and a terrible and mighty voice was heard speaking: “Let’s go and leave this House. 3. War 2.258 (2.13.4) There was also another body of wicked men gotten together, not so impure in their actions, but more wicked in their intentions, who laid waste the happy state of the city no less than did these murderers. War 2.259 (2.13.4) These were such men as deceived and deluded the people under pretense of divine inspiration, but were for procuring innovations and changes of the government, and these prevailed with the multitude to act like madmen, and went before them into the wilderness, as pretending that God would there show them the signals of liberty; War 2.260 (2.13.4) but Felix thought this procedure was to be the beginning of a revolt; so he sent some horsemen and footmen, both armed, who destroyed a great number of them. War 2.261 (2.13.5) But there was an Egyptian false prophet that did the Jews more mischief than the former; for he was a cheat, and pretended to be a prophet also, and got together thirty thousand men that were deluded by him; War 2.262 (2.13.5) these he led round about from the wilderness to the mount which was called the Mount of Olives, and was ready to break into Jerusalem by force from that place; and if he could but once conquer the Roman garrison and the people, he intended to domineer over them by the assistance of those guards of his that were to break into the city with him, War 2.263 (2.13.5) but Felix prevented his attempt, and met him with his Roman soldiers, while all the people assisted him in his attack upon them, insomuch that, when it came to a battle, the Egyptian ran away, with a few others, while the greatest part of those that were with him were either destroyed or taken alive; but the rest of the multitude were dispersed everyone to their own homes and there concealed themselves. War 2:264 (2.13.6) Now, when these were quieted, it happened, as it does in a diseased body, that another part was subject to an inflammation; for a company of deceivers and robbers got together, and persuaded the Jews to revolt, and exhorted them to assert their liberty, inflicting death on those that continued in obedience to the Roman government, and saying, that such as willingly chose slavery ought to be forced from such their desired inclinations; War 2:265 (2.13.6) for they parted themselves into different bodies, and lay in wait up and down the country, and plundered the houses of the great men, and slew the men themselves, and set the villages on fire; and this till all Judea was filled with the effects of their madness. And thus the flame was every day more and more blown up, till it came to a direct war. War 2:652 (2.22.2) But as for the Acrabbene toparchy, Simon, the son of Gioras, got a great number of those that were fond of innovations together, and betook himself to ravage the country; nor did he only harass the rich men’s houses, but tormented their bodies, and appeared openly and beforehand to affect tyranny in his government. War 2:653 (2.22.2) And when and army was sent against him by Ananus, and the other rulers, he and his band retired to the robbers that were at Masada, and staid there, and plundered the country of Idumea with them, till both Ananus and his other adversaries were slain; War 2:654 (2.22.2) and until the rulers of that country were so afflicted with the multitude of those that were slain, and with the continual ravage of what they had, that the raised an army, and put garrisons into the villages, to secure them from those insults. And in this state were the affairs of Judea at that time. War 4.503 (4.9.3) And now there arose another war at Jerusalem. There was a son of Giora, one Simon, by birth of Gerasa, a young man, not so cunning indeed as John [of Gischala], who had already seized upon the city, War 4.504 (4.9.3) but superior in strength of body and courage; on which account, when he had been driven away from that Acrabattene toparchy, which he once had, by Ananus the high priest, he came to those robbers who had seized upon Masada. War 4.505 (4.9.3) At first they suspected him, and only permitted him to come with the women he brought with him into the lower part of the fortress, while they dwelt in the upper part of it themselves. War 4.506 (4.9.3) However, his manner so well agreed with theirs, and he seemed so trusty a man, that he went out with them, and ravaged and destroyed the country with them about Masada; War 4.507 (4.9.3) yet when he persuaded them to undertake greater things, he could not prevail with them so to do; for as they were accustomed to dwell in that citadel, they were afraid of going far from that which was their hiding-place; War 4.508 (4.9.3) but he, affecting to tyrannize, and being fond of greatness, when he had heard of the death of Ananus, left them, and went into the mountainous part of the country. So he proclaimed liberty to those in slavery, and a reward to those already free, and got together a set of wicked men from all quarters. War 4.509 (4.9.4) And as he had now a strong body of men about him, he overran the villages that lay in the mountainous country, and when there were still more and more that came to him, he ventured to go down into the lower parts of the country, War 4.510 (4.9.4) and since he was now become formidable to the cities, many of the men of power were corrupted by him; so that his army was no longer composed of slaves and robbers, but a great many of the populace were obedient to him as their king. Antig.20:97 (20.5.1) Now it came to pass, while Fadus was procurator of Judea, that a certain magician, whose name was Theudas, persuaded a great part of the people to take their effects with them, and follow him to the river Jordan; for he told them he was a prophet, and that he would, by his own command, divide the river, and afford them an easy passage over it; Antig. 20:98 (20.5.1) and many were deluded by his words. However, Fadus did not permit them to make any advantage of his wild attempt, but sent a troop of horsemen out against them; who, falling upon them unexpectedly, slew many of them and took many of them alive. They also took Theudas alive, and cut off his head, and carried it to Jerusalem. Antig. 20:99 (20.5.1) This was what befell the Jews in the time of Cuspius Fadus’s government [AD 44-46]. Antig. 20:100 (20.5.2) Then came Tiberius Alexander as successor to Fadus [AD 46-48]; he was the son of Alexander the alabarch of Alexandria; which Alexander was a principal person among all his contemporaries, both for his family and wealth: he was also more eminent for his piety than this his son Alexander, for he did not continue in the religion of his country. Antig. 20:101 (20.5.2) Under these procurators that great famine happened in Judea [AD 46], in which queen Helena bought corn in Egypt at a great expense, and distributed it to those that were in want, as I have related already; Antig. 20:102 (20.5.2) and besides this, the sons of Judas of Galilee were now slain; I mean of that Judas who caused the people to revolt, when Cyrenius came to take an account of the estates of the Jews [AD 6], as we have shown in a foregoing book. The names of those sons were James and Simon, whom Alexander commanded to be crucified; Antig. 20:167 (20.8.6) These works, that were done by the robbers, filled the city with all sorts of impiety. And now these impostors and deceivers persuaded the multitude to follow them into the wilderness, Antig. 20:168 (20.8.6) and pretended that they would exhibit manifest wonders and signs, that should be performed by the providence of God. And many that were prevailed on by them suffered the punishments of their folly; for Felix brought them back, and then punished them. Antig. 20:169 (20.8.6) Moreover, there came out of Egypt about this time to Jerusalem, one that said he was a prophet, and advised the multitude of the common people to go along with him to the Mount of Olives, as it was called, which layover against the city, and at the distance of five furlongs. Antig. 20:170 (20.8.6) He said farther, that he would show them from hence, how, at his command, the walls of Jerusalem would fall down; and he promised that he would procure them an entrance into the city through those walls, when they were fallen down. Antig. 20:171 (20.8.6) Now when Felix was informed of these things, he ordered his soldiers to take their weapons, and came against them with a great number of horsemen and footmen, from Jerusalem, and attacked the Egyptian and the people that were with him. He also slew four hundred of them, and took two hundred alive. Antig. 20:172 (20.8.6) But the Egyptian himself escaped out of the fight, but did not appear any more. And again the robbers stirred up the people to make war with the Romans, and said they ought not to obey them at all; and when any persons would not comply with them, they set fire to their villages, and plundered them. 4. War Preface 1 :4 (20.11.3) Now at the time when this great concussion of affairs happened, the affairs of the Romans themselves were in great disorder. Those Jews also, who were for innovations, then arose when the times were disturbed; they were also in a flourishing condition for strength and riches, insomuch that the affairs of the east were then exceeding tumultuous, while some hoped for gain, and others were afraid of loss in such troubles; 5. War 7:79 (7.4.2) for when they saw the Roman government in a great internal disorder, by the continual changes of its rulers, and understood that every part of the habitable earth under them was in an unsettled and tottering condition, they thought this was the best opportunity that could afford itself for themselves to make a sedition, when the state of the Romans was so ill. 6. Acts 11 :28; famine during reign of Claudius (AD 44-48); Antig. 20:101 (20.5.2) Under these procurators that great famine happened in Judea, in which queen Helena bought corn in Egypt at a great expense, and distributed it to those that were in want, as I have related already; War 6:421 (6.9.3) the greater part of whom were indeed of the same nation [with the citizens of Jerusalem], but not belonging to the city itself; for they were come up from all the country to the feast of unleavened bread, and were on a sudden shut up by an army, which, at the very first, occasioned so great a straitness among them that there came a pestilential destruction upon them, and soon afterward such a famine; as destroyed them more suddenly. War 6:197 (6.3.3) Moreover, their hunger was so intolerable, that it obliged them to chew everything, while they gathered such things as the most sordid animals would not touch, and endured to eat them; nor did they at length abstain from girdles and shoes; and the very leather which belonged to their shields they pulled off and gnawed: War 6:198 (6.3.3) the very wisps of old hay became food to some; and some gathered up fibers, and sold a very small weight of them for four Attic [drachmae]. War 6:199 (6.3.3) But why do I describe the shameless impudence that the famine brought on men in their eating inanimate things, while I am going to relate a matter of fact, the like to which no history relates, either among the Greeks or Barbarians! It is horrible to speak of it, and incredible when heard. War 6:200 (6.3.3) I had indeed willingly omitted this calamity of ours, that I might not seem to deliver what is so portentous to posterity, but that I have innumerable witnesses to it in my own age; and, besides, my country would have had little reason to thank me for suppressing the miseries that she underwent at this time. War 6:201 (6.3.4) There was a certain woman that dwelt beyond Jordan, her name was Mary; her father was Eleazar, of the village Bethezub, which signifies the House of Hyssop. She was eminent for her family and her wealth, and had fled away to Jerusalem with the rest of the multitude, and was with them besieged therein at this time. War 6:202 (6.3.4) The other effects of this woman had been already seized upon; such I mean as she had brought with her out of Perea, and removed to the city. What she had treasured up besides, as also what food she had contrived to save, had been also carried off by the rapacious guards, who came every day running into her house for that purpose. War 6:203 (6.3.4) This put the poor woman into a very great passion, and by the frequent reproaches and imprecations she cast at these rapacious villains, she had provoked them to anger against her; War 6:204 (6.3.4) but none of them, either out of the indignation she had raised against herself, or out of the commiseration of her case, would take away her life; and if she found any food, she perceived her labors were for others, and not for herself; and it was now become impossible for her anyway to find anymore food, while the famine pierced through her very bowels and marrow, when also her passion was fired to a degree beyond the famine itself; nor did she consult with anything but with her passion and the necessity she was in. She then attempted a most unnatural thing; War 6:205 (6.3.4) and snatching up her son, who was a child sucking at her breast, she said, “0, thou miserable infant! For whom shall I preserve thee in this war, this famine, and this sedition? War 6:206 (6.3.4) As to the war with the Romans, if they preserve our lives, we must be slaves! This famine also will destroy us, even before that slavery comes upon us: yet are these seditious rogues more terrible than both the other. War 6:207 (6.3.4) Come on; be thou my food, and be thou a fury to these seditious varlets and a byword to the world, which is all that is now wanting to complete the calamities of us Jews.” War 6:208 (6.3.4) As soon as she had said this she slew her son; and then roasted him, and ate the one half of him, and kept the other half by her concealed. War 6:209 (6.3.4) Upon this the seditous came in presently, and smelling the horrid scent of this food, they threatened her, that they would cut her throat immediately if she did not show them what food she had gotten ready. She replied, that she had saved a very fine portion of it for them; and withal uncovered what was left of her son. War 6:210 (6.3.4) Hereupon they were seized with a horror and amazement of mind, and stood astonished at the sight; when she said to them, “This is mine own son; and what hath been done was mine own doing! Come, eat of this food; for I have eaten of it myself! War 6:211 (6.3.4) Do not you pretend to be either more tender than a woman, or more compassionate than a mother; but if you be so scrupulous and do abominate this my sacrifice, as I have eaten the one half, let the rest be reserved for me also.” War 6:212 (6.3.4) After which, those men went out trembling, being never so much affrighted at anything as they were at this, and with some difficulty they left the rest of that meat to the mother. Upon which the whole city was full of this horrid action immediately; and while every body laid his miserable case before their own eyes, they trembled, as if this unheard-of action had been by themselves. War 6:213 (6.3.4) So those that were thus distressed by the famine were very desirous to die; and those already dead were esteemed happy, because they had not lived long enough either to hear or to see such miseries. 7. War 4:286 (4.4.5) for there broke out a prodigious storm in the night, with the utmost violence, and very strong winds, with the largest showers of rain, with continual lightnings, terrible thunderings, and amazing concussions and bellowings of the earth, that was in an earthquake. War 4:287 (4.4.5) These things were a manifest indication that some destruction was coming upon men, when the system of the world was put into this disorder; and anyone would guess that these wonders foreshowed some grand calamities that were coming. J. Marcellus Kik: “And as to earthquakes, many are mentioned by the writers during a period just previous to 70 A.D. there were earthquakes in Crete, Smyrna, Miletus, Chios, Samos, Laodicea, Hierapolis, Colossae, Campania, Rome, and Judea. It is interesting to note that the city of Pompeii was much damaged by an earthquake … Feb. 5, 63 AD” (An Heathen Testimonies to the Truth of the Christian Religion, first published 1764-’67, also in vol, vi. of his Works, ed. by Kippis, London 1838. Barnes Notes on Matthew 24:7 — Many of these [earthquakes] are mentioned as preceding the destruction of Jerusalem. Tacitus mentions one in the reign of Claudius, at Rome; and says that, in the reign of Nero, the cities of Laodicea, Hierapolis, and Colossae, were overthrown; and the celebrated Pompeii was overwhelmed, and almost destroyed by an earthquake, Annals, 15, 22. Others are mentioned as occurring at Smyrna, Miletus, Chios, and Samos. Clarke’s Commentary on Matthew 24:7 — … earthquakes, there were several in those times to which our Lord refers; particularly one at Crete in the reign of Claudius, one at Smyrna, Miletus, Chios, Samos. See Grotius. One at Rome, mentioned by Tacitus; and one at Laodicea in the reign of Nero, in which the city was overthrown, as were likewise Hierapolis and Colossae. See Tacit. Annals lib. xii. and lib. xiv. One at Campania, mentioned by Seneca [Ad Lucilium Epist. Morales]; and one at Rome, in the reign of Galba, mentioned by Suetonius in the life of that emperor. Add to all these, a dreadful one in Judea, mentioned by Josephus (Wars 4.286) accompanied by a dreadful tempest, violent winds, vehement showers, and continual lightnings and thunders; which led many to believe that these things portended some uncommon calamity [AD 68]: Fourfold Gospel (Harmony of the Gospels by McGarvey and Pendleton) comments on Matthew 24:7 – Great natural disturbances would constitute the third sign. That these preceded the destruction of Jerusalem, there is abundant historic evidence. Alford enumerates the earthquakes as follows: 1. A great earthquake in Crete, AD 46 or 47. 2. One at Rome when Nero assumed the manly toga, AD. 51. 3. One at Aparnasa in Phrygia, mentioned by Tacitus, AD. 53.4. One at Laodicea in Phrygia, AD. 60. 5. One in Campania, AD. 62 or 63. There were an indefinite number of famines referred to by Roman writers, and at least one pestilence during which thirty thousand perished in Rome alone. All these signs are mentioned by unbelieving writers such as Josephus, Tacitus, Suetonius, Philostratus, and Seneca, who speak of them because of their importance and not with any reference to the prophecy of Christ. Earthquakes in Crete (AD 47), Rome (AD 51), Apamaea (AD 53), Laodicea (AD 61 or 65). Seneca mentioned quakes in Turkey (incl. Smyrna) (in AD 65). [Seneca Ad Lucilium Epist. Morales] 8. War 6:421 (6.9.3) the greater part of whom were indeed of the same nation [with the citizens of Jerusalem], but not belonging to the city itself; for they were come up from all the country to the feast of unleavened bread, and were on a sudden shut up by an army, which, at the very first, occasioned so great a straitness among them that there came a pestilential destruction upon them, and soon afterward such a famine, as destroyed them more suddenly. 9. (same as #2) 10. Book of Acts and Paul’s Epistles document this extreme persecution (the great tribulation). In the book of Revelation, John says the tribulation was already in progress and he was a victim of it by being put in exile on the island of Patmos. **11. The book of Acts shows Stephen and James (John’s brother) being killed by the Jews. Josephus talks about James (the brother of Jesus) being killed by the Jews in AD 62. At the same time James was arrested, Josephus says that some other companions of James there in Jerusalem were arrested. This may have been when John was arrested and sent to exile on the Roman prison island of Patmos, where he wrote the book of Revelation in AD 63, and shortly afterwards suffered martyrdom in the Neronic persecution (AD 64). Both Peter and Paul in their final books (2 Peter and 2 Timothy) say that their martyrdom was imminent, which were written right after the Neronic persecution broke out. The great tribulation was underway (AD 62-66). 12. Acts and the epistles of Paul show this extremely hateful treatment of Christians. Eusebius records a lot more of it. 13. Gal. 5:1ff and 2 Thess. 2:1ff show that this apostasy was already happening. The book of Acts shows it, and the books of Hebrews and Revelation both warn against this apostasy that was already happening. The last few NT books to be written are full of warnings about apostasy and exhortations to endure to the End. 14. The book of Acts and other NT epistles show this very kind of betrayal. Apostle Paul was a part of the Jerusalem hierarchy before he became a Christian. All his relatives and friends and associates turned their back on him and tried to kill him, except for his nephew who informed him of a plot on his life. 15. There were even Christians (the Judaizers) who did spiteful things against their fellow Christians. Paul said that his imprisonment had been made much more difficult by the jealousy and bitterness of the Judaizers, and other (false) brethren who had sneaked in to spy out their freedoms in Christ. Paul told the Ephesian elders that from among their own selves false teachers and betrayers would arise. 16. War 6:285(6.5.2) A false prophet was the occasion of these people’s destruction, who had made a public proclamation in the city that very day, that God commanded them to get up upon the temple, and that there they should receive miraculous signs of their deliverance. War 6:286(6.5.2) Now, there was then a great number of false prophets suborned by the tyrants to impose upon the people, who denounced this to them, that they should wait for deliverance from God: and this was in order to keep them from deserting, and that they might be buoyed up above fear and care by such hopes. War 6:287(6.5.2) Now, a man that is in adversity does easily comply with such promises; for when a such a seducer makes him believe that he shall be delivered from those miseries which oppress him, then it is that the patient is full of hopes of such deliverance. War 6:288 (6.5.3) Thus were the miserable people persuaded by these deceivers, and such as belied God himself; while they did not attend, nor give credit, to the signs that were so evident and did so plainly foretell their future desolation; but, like men infatuated, without either eyes to see, or minds to consider, did not regard the denunciations that God made to them. 17. Josephus says the robbers, Sicarii, Zealots, seditious factions, and even High Priests kept laws only selectively (if at all). Both civil laws and religious laws were trampled underfoot by the Zealots in their attempt to throw off the Roman yoke. They demanded that the Christians keep every jot and tittle, but the Zealots especially felt they were above the law. War 7:262 (7.8.1) They were the Sicarii who first began these transgressions, and first became barbarous towards those allied to them, and left no words of reproach unsaid, and no works of perdition untried, in order to destroy those whom their contrivances affected. War 6:408 (6.8.5) a city that had been liable to so many miseries during the siege, that, had it always enjoyed as much happiness from its first foundation, it would certainly have been the envy of the world. Nor did it on any other account so much deserve these sore misfortunes, as by producing such a generation of men as were the occasions of this its overthrow. 18. Seven cities in Revelation already had these characteristics by the time it was written in AD 62-64. And Apostle Paul reminds all of the churches to whom he wrote his epistles not to lose their passion that they had expressed toward Christ at the beginning of their conversion. The corrupting influence of the world took its toll on the churches as they fell under more and more persecution and tribulation. 19. Those who lived and remained (endured) until the Parousia were rescued (raptured) before the wrath was poured out upon the apostate Jews. 20. cf. Rom. 1 :8; 10:28; 15: 18f; 16:26; Col. 1 :6, 23; [Eusebius, Eccl. Hist. 2.3.1] Thus, under the influence of heavenly power, and with the divine co-operation, the doctrine of the Saviour, like the rays of the sun, quickly illumined the whole world; and straightway, in accordance with the divine Scriptures, the voice of the inspired evangelists and apostles went forth through all the earth, and their words to the end of the world. [Eusebius, Eccl. Hist. 3.8.11] But Vespasian did not rule the whole world, but only that part of it which was subject to the Romans. With better right could it be applied to Christ; to whom it was said by the Father, “Ask of me, and I will give thee the heathen for thine inheritance, and the ends of the earth for thy possession.” At that very time, indeed, the voice of his holy apostles “went throughout all the earth, and their words to the end of the world.” 21. War 4:201 (4.3.12) As for the dead bodies of the people, their relations carried them out to their own houses; but when any of the zealots were wounded, he went up into the temple, and defiled that sacred floor with his blood, insomuch that one may say it was their blood alone that polluted our sanctuary. War 4:202 (4.3.12) Now in these conflicts the robbers always sallied out of the temple, and were too hard for their enemies; but the populace grew very angry, and became more and more numerous, and reproached those that gave back, and those behind would not afford room to those that were going off, but forced them on again, till at length they made their whole body to turn against their adversaries, War 4:203 (4.3.12) and the robbers could no longer oppose them, but were forced gradually to retire into the temple; when Ananus and his party fell into it at the same time together with them. Whiston’s Note on War 4:203 above — It is worth noting here, that this Ananus, the best of the Jews at this time, and the high priest, who was so very uneasy at the profanation of the Jewish courts of the temple by the zealots, did not however scruple the profanation of the “court of the Gentiles;” as in our Savior’s days it was very much profaned by the Jews, and made a marketplace, nay, a “den of thieves,” without scruple, Matt. 21 :12-13; Mark 11 :15-17. Accordingly Josephus himself, when he speaks of the two inner courts, calls them both hagia, or holy places; but, so far as I remember, never gives that character of the court of the Gentiles. See Wars 5.356 (5.9.2) below: War 5:356 (5.9.2) Thus did the Romans spend four days in bringing this subsistence money to the several legions; but on the fifth day, when no signs of peace appeared to come from the Jews, Titus divided his legions, and began to raise banks, both at the tower of Antonia and at John’s monument. Now his designs were to take the upper city at that monument, and the temple at the tower of Antonia; for if the temple were not taken it would be dangerous to keep the city itself. [i.e., implying that the Zealots were occupying the inner courts of the temple — ees] The city was surrounded back then. War 6:428 (6.9.4) Now this vast multitude is indeed collected out of remote places, but the entire nation was now shut up by fate as in a prison, and the Roman army encompassed the city when it was crowded with inhabitants. Antig. 20:166 (20.8.5) And this seams to me to have been the reason why God, out his hatred to these men’s wickedness, rejected our city; and as for the temple, he no longer esteemed it sufficiently pure for him to inhabit therein, but brought the Romans upon us, and threw a fire upon the city to purge it; and brought upon us, our wives, and children, slavery, as desirous to make us wiser by our calamities. 22. War 2:556 (2.20.1) After this calamity had befallen Cestius, many of the most eminent of the Jews swam away from the city, as from a ship when it was going to sink; Costobarus, therefore, and Saul, who were brethren, together with Philip, the son of Jacimus, who was the commander of king Agrippa’s forces, ran away from the city, and went to Cestius. 23. Nursing mother who slew her infant son for food in the famine of the siege: War 6:201 (6.3.4) There was a certain woman that dwelt beyond Jordan, her name was Mary; her father was Eleazar, of the village Bethezub, which signifies the House of Hyssop. She was eminent for her family and her wealth, and had fled away to Jerusalem with the rest of the multitude, and was with them besieged therein at this time. War 6:202 (6.3.4) The other effects of this woman had been already seized upon; such I mean as she had brought with her out of Perea, and removed to the city. What she had treasured up besides, as also what food she had contrived to save, had been also carried off by the rapacious guards, who came every day running into her house for that purpose. War 6:203 (6.3.4) This put the poor woman into a very great passion, and by the frequent reproaches and imprecations she cast at these rapacious villains, she had provoked them to anger against her; War 6:204 (6.3.4) but none of them, either out of the indignation she had raised against herself, or out of the commiseration of her case, would take away her life; and if she found any food, she perceived her labors were for others, and not for herself; and it was now become impossible for her anyway to find anymore food, while the famine pierced through her very bowels and marrow, when also her passion was fired to a degree beyond the famine itself; nor did she consult with anything but with her passion and the necessity she was in. She then attempted a most unnatural thing; War 6:205 (6.3.4) and snatching up her son, who was a child sucking at her breast, she said, “0, thou miserable infant! For whom shall I preserve thee in this war, this famine, and this sedition? War 6:206 (6.3.4) As to the war with the Romans, if they preserve our lives, we must be slaves! This famine also will destroy us, even before that slavery comes upon us: yet are these seditious rogues more terrible than both the other. War 6:207 (6.3.4) Come on; be thou my food, and be thou a fury to these seditious varlets and a byword to the world, which is all that is now wanting to complete the calamities of us Jews.” War 6:208 (6.3.4) As soon as she had said this she slew her son; and then roasted him, and ate the one half of him, and kept the other half by her concealed. War 6:209 (6.3.4) Upon this the seditious came in presently, and smelling the horrid scent of this food, they threatened her, that they would cut her throat immediately if she did not show them what food she had gotten ready. She replied, that she had saved a very fine portion of it for them; and withal uncovered what was left of her son. War 6:210 (6.3.4) Hereupon they were seized with a horror and amazement of mind, and stood astonished at the sight; when she said to them, “This is mine own son; and what hath been done was mine own doing! Come, eat of this food; for I have eaten of it myself! War 6:211 (6.3.4) Do not you pretend to be either more tender than a woman, or more compassionate than a mother; but if you be so scrupulous and do abominate this my sacrifice, as I have eaten the one half, let the rest be reserved for me also.” War 6:212 (6.3.4) After which, those men went out trembling, being never so much affrighted at anything as they were at this, and with some difficulty they left the rest of that meat to the mother. Upon which the whole city was full of this horrid action immediately; and while every body laid his miserable case before their own eyes, they trembled, as if this unheard-of action had been by themselves. War 6:213 (6.3.4) So those that were thus distressed by the famine were very desirous to die; and those already dead were esteemed happy, because they had not lived long enough either to hear or to see such miseries. No travel on Sabbath: Antig. 13:252 (13.8.4) And truly he did not speak falsely in saying so; for the festival, which we call Pentecost, did then fall out to be the next day to the Sabbath: nor is it lawful for us to journey, either on the Sabbath day, or on a festival day. Whiston Note: The Jews were not to march or journey on the Sabbath, or on such a great festival as was equivalent to the Sabbath, any further than a Sabbath-day’s journey, or two thousand cubits. **24. War Preface 1 :1 Whereas the war which the Jews made with the Romans hath been the greatest of all those, not only that have been in our times, but, in a manner, of those that ever were heard of; both of those wherein cities have fought against cities, or nations against nations 25. Cestius left unexpectedly, allowing refugees to flee — Jews began war prep. Jews could no longer use Romans to kill Christians. Church fled to Agrippa and Roman cities where the church was protected (like Antioch). War 2:556 (2.20.1) After this calamity had befallen Cestius, many of the most eminent of the Jews swam away from the city, as from a ship when it was going to sink; Costobarus, therefore, and Saul, who were brethren, together with Philip, the son of Jacimus, who was the commander of king Agrippa’s forces, ran away from the city, and went to Cestius. 26. Josephus records all these things in great detail. That is what his Wars books are mainly focused on. 27. We looked at these same references up in #2 28. War 6:369 (6.7.2) Nor was there any place in the city that had no dead bodies in it, but what was entirely covered with those that were killed either by the famine or the rebellion; and all was full of the dead bodies of such as had perished, either by that sedition or by that famine. War 3:123 (3.6.2) Then came the ensigns encompassing the eagle, which is at the head of every Roman legion, the king, and the strongest of all birds, which seems to them a signal of dominion, and an omen that they shall conquer all against whom they march; 29. See the references we read in #2 When cities were burned, the smoke darkened the sun and moon. Astrological phenomenon were indeed seen above Jerusalem, as we noticed in the Josephus, Yosippon, Tacitus and Eusebius quotes under point #2. 30. We saw that Josephus records the angelic/demonic activity that was seen in the sky. Eusebius in both his Ecclesiastical History and his Theophania makes a big point about the demonic powers being subjugated by the work of Christ. (see the signs we mentioned in #2). The book of Revelation also mentions this angelic warfare and the casting down of the demonic forces at the time of the Parousia and the downfall of the Great Harlot City Jerusalem. 31. Same signs we mentioned in #2. 32. War 2:649 (2.22.1) in all parts of the city, darts and all sorts of armor were upon the anvil. Although the multitude of the young men were engaged in exercises, without any regularity, and all places were full of tumultuous doings; yet the moderate sort were exceedingly sad; and a great many there were who, out of the prospects they had of the calamities that were coming upon them, made great lamentations. War 2:455 (2.17.10) while men made public lamentation when they saw that such occasions were afforded for a war as were incurable; that the city was all over polluted with such abominations, from which it was but reasonable to expect some vengeance even though they should escape revenge from the Romans; so that the city was filled with sadness, and everyone of the moderate men in it were under great disturbance, as likely themselves to undergo punishment for the wickedness of the seditious; 33. Same signs we discussed in #2 34. The angelic activity was seen in the sky, indicating that these events did occur as predicted. Same signs we discussed in #2. This seems to be a reference to the rapture, when the angels gathered the elect who had lived and remained until the End of the Great Tribulation.