ARCHANGEL is not a word used in the Old Testament. [Greek: “archangelos” or “archaggelos” – Strong’s #743 = a chief angel]. It is only used twice in the New Testament. (1 Thess. 4:16; Jude 1:9).
“For the Lord Himself will descend from heaven with a shout, WITH THE VOICE OF AN ARCHANGEL, and with the trumpet of God. And the dead in Christ will rise first.” (1 Thess. 4:16). This seems to indicate that Jesus Himself will speak with an archangelic shout at His second coming Parousia. The voice of “AN” ARCHANGEL implies that there is probably more than just one ARCH ANGEL.
(1) Michael is identified as “THE” ARCHANGEL. He is considered chief of the angels and protector of Israel (Jude 1:9). He is referred to as “one of the chief princes” by Daniel (Dan. 10:13, 21; 12:1). This suggests that there are other such chief princes or archangels. Michael and his angels fought with the dragon; so that the dragon and his angels (demons) were cast out to earth. (Rev. 12:7-9).
[NOTE: Unless there is more about the circumstances of this war in heaven that we do not understand, it appears doubtful that Michael, the Archangel would be referring to Christ Himself. Any battle in heaven that personally involved Christ (God) literally fighting an angel (dragon) would be so one-sided that it does not seem viable!]
(2) Gabriel may be an ARCHANGEL, although not specifically identified as such. He is a special agent of God. In Jewish thought he is always God’s messenger and is portrayed as resembling a man (Dan. 8:16; 9:21; Luke 1:19, 26).
(3) Satan may be an ARCHANGEL, although not identified as such. He is the one who tempted Jesus in the wilderness (Matt. 4:10; Mark 1:13; Luke 4:8). Satan bound a woman for eighteen years and Christ healed her (Luke 13:16). Satan entered Judas leading to his betrayal of Christ (Luke 22:3-6; John 13:27). Satan was involved when Ananias and his wife lied to the Holy Spirit resulting in their immediate deaths (Acts 5:1-10). Satan is identified as the Devil and the dragon, the most evil of all angels, and the leader of the angels who sinned. He was cast out of heaven with his angels (aka: demons) to the underworld (Rev. 12:9).
(4) Principality (plural: principalities) [Greek: “arche” – Strong’s #746 – chief, ruler, power] may include ARCHANGELS or just angels. The word is the prefix to ARCHANGEL. The Church in its formation was made known to the “principalities” in heavenly places (Eph. 3:10). The believers, who make up the church, are created by God (Col. 1:16). Christ is the head of all principality and power (Col. 2:10). He triumphed over principalities and powers (Col. 2:15).