“7 Therefore be patient, brethren (first century saints), until the COMING (Parousia) of the Lord. See how the farmer waits for the precious fruit of the earth, waiting patiently for it until it receives the early and latter rain. 8YOU also be patient Establish YOUR hearts, for the COMING (Parousia) of the Lord is AT HAND” (James 5:7-8).
The word “COMING” is Greek: “PAROUSIA” [Strong’s #3952 – a presence, a coming, an arrival and continuing presence with]. It is pronounced: par-oo-see’-ah. The Greek term Parousia was a common term in the 1st century that meant “presence.” It eventually came to apply particularly to the coming and presence of some noted dignitary. As with most biblical and theological terms it was taken into Christian parlance from common use and developed a technical meaning. While the predominant theme of Parousia referenced in the Bible was pertaining to the second coming of the Lord, some of the other scriptures assist us in providing further understanding to the “arrival and continued presence” aspect of the term Parousia with: the coming of Stephanus (1 Cor. 16:17), of Titus (2 Cor. 7:6), of Paul (Phil. 2:12).
The second coming PAROUSIA of the Lord occurred in AD 66, commencing approximately four to five years after James wrote the above words in his epistle. James told those first century saints to be patient and hang in there under the extreme persecutions for their faith in Christ that those particular saints were suffering at the hands of the Jews and Romans.
The time period for this PAROUSIA was clarified by James by saying: “the COMING of the Lord is AT HAND.” The PAROUSIA lasted from AD 66-70. During this time, Christ resurrected the deceased saints; raptured the living saints; resurrected all of the unjust people waiting in Sheol/Hades; and completed His final judgments of eternal life for the believers and eternal condemnation for the unbelievers.
In addition, during that time, Christ brought His wrath against the unbelieving nation of Israel, the city of Jerusalem, and the temple. Thus ending the Old Covenant Jewish religious system, and the final consummation and removal of the obsolete Old Heavens and Earth cosmological order which was based on animal blood sacrifice and epitomized in the old temple cultus (Heb. 8:13 consummated). He also fully established the seen realm of the New Covenant spiritual Kingdomgoing forward in human history. He reunited the earthly seen realm and heavenly unseen realm of His one eternal Kingdom (fulfilling Eph. 1:10, 3:8-11 aka: New Heavens and New Earth cosmological order based on His once for all blood sacrifice on the cross). The PAROUSIA was future to the writers of the New Testament, but past for all of us who live on this earth after AD 70.
The word PAROUSIA is also used in several other passages in the New Testament Scriptures. Some samples of these are:
“3Now as He sat on the Mount of Olives, the disciples came to Him privately, saying, “Tell us when will these things be? And what will be the sign of Your coming (PAROUSIA),and of the end of the age?” (Matt. 24:3).
“23But each one in his own order: Christ the firstfruits, afterward those who are Christ’s at His coming (PAROUSIA).” (1 Cor. 15:23).
“13so that He may establish YOUR hearts blameless in holiness before our God and Father at the coming (PAROUSIA) of our Lord Jesus Christ with all His saints.” (1 Thess. 3:13).
“15 For this we say to you by the word of the Lord, that WE who are alive and remain until the coming (PAROUSIA) of the Lord will by no means precede those who are asleep.” (1 Thess. 4:15).
“23 Now may the God of peace Himself sanctify YOU completely; and may YOUR whole spirit, soul, and body be preserved blameless at the coming (PAROUSIA) of our Lord Jesus Christ.” (1 Thess. 5:23).
“1 Now, brethren, concerning the coming (PAROUSIA) of our Lord Jesus Christ and OUR gathering together to Hint, we ask YOU.” (2 Thess. 2:1).
“8And then the lawless one will be revealed, whom the Lord will consume with the breath of His mouth and destroy with the brightness of His coming (PAROUSIA).” (2 Thess. 2:8).
“4and saying, “Where is the promise of His coming (PAROUSIA)? For since the fathers fell asleep, all things continue as they were from the beginning of creation.” (2 Pet. 3:4).
“28And now, little children, abide in Him, that when He appears, WE may have confidence and not be ashamed before Him at His coming (PAROUSIA)” (1 John 2:28).
[Also see: “Parousia Events Recorded (Pre and during) (AD 65-66)”]
[For a more in-depth study see eschatology “Study Series 14 Lesson 2 Resurrection: 1 and 2 Cor. And Acts”]
[For a more in-depth study see eschatology “Study Series 14 Lesson 3 Resurrection: 1 Thess. 4:13-17”]
[For a more in-depth study see eschatology “Study Series 14 Lesson 4 Resurrection: Expectations/Experiences”]
[For a more in-depth study see eschatology “Study Series 14 Lesson 5 Resurrection: 2 Thessalonians 1]
[For a more in-depth study see eschatology “Study Series 14 Lesson 6 Resurrection: 2 Thessalonians 1…How is This Possible…Objections Answered”]
[For a more in-depth study see eschatology “Study Series 14 Lesson 7 The Parousia Acts 1:9-11”]